Glossary

 

20-bit technology

A method of more accurate and sophisticated video processing.

 

Address

Each AutoDome has a numerical address in the control system in which it is located. This allows the appropriate dome to be operated. The address may be set locally using the Bilinx Configuration Tool for Imaging Devices (CTFID) or remotely using the Fast Address function (see Fast Address).

 

Advanced Alarm Control (AAC)

AutoDome's flexible and sophisticated alarm management subsystem that allows "rules" to be created that define which input(s) activate one or more outputs (see Alarm Rule). In its most basic form, a rule could define which input(s) should activate which output(s). In a more complex form, a rule can be programmed to take a specific keyboard command (pre-existing or not) and perform a dome function, or any combination of the above.

 

Advanced Diagnostics

Bosch's combination of built-in On Screen Displays (OSD) and status LEDs that are used to check critical camera parameters such as internal temperature, input voltage levels, and network connectivity. This allows a technician to quickly determine the source of problems and ensure that the dome is functioning within correct operating limits.

 

Alarm Rule

AutoDome's alarm management subsystem that uses "if this, do that" logic to perform specific actions when an event occurs.

 

ANPR (Automatic Number Plate Reading)

Also known as ALPR (Automatic License Plate Reading)

 

Aperture

The size of the opening in the iris controlling the amount of light reaching the sensor. The larger the F-Stop number the less light.

 

AutoBlack

Auto Black Compensation is a technique of boosting the video signal level to produce a full-amplitude video signal even when the scene contrast is less than the full range. The darkest part of the signal is set to black and the lightest part to white, thus increasing the contrast.

 

AutoDome

Fully integrated, high-speed, pan/tilt/zoom camera built into a protective dome housing allowing full and continuous 360° coverage of the scene.

 

Auto Focus

The lens continuously adjusts to the correct focus automatically for the sharpest picture.

 

Auto Iris

The lens iris opening is automatically adjusted to allow the correct illumination of the camera sensor. With direct drive or DC Iris lenses the camera controls the size of the aperture. Video iris lenses have the control circuits built into the lens.

 

Automatic Gain Control

The electronics that regulate the gain or amplification of the signal.

 

AutoPan

The camera pans continuously between right and left limit settings.

 

AutoPivot

As the camera tilts through the vertical position, the camera is rotated to maintain the correct orientation of the image.

 

AutoPlayback

This function records the sequence of movements of the AutoDome PTZ for later playback, allowing a set pattern to be repeated automatically. This function is often called Guard Tour.

 

AutoScaling

As the camera zooms in to increase the size of objects on the monitor screen, the pan and tilt speeds are reduced so that the relative speed on the screen remains constant for similar joystick control positions.

 

AutoTrack

A patented technology that integrates motion detection into the camera, allowing tracking of an object and zooming in to optimize size and perspective.

 

Auto White Balance

A feature that allows a color camera to automatically adjust its output color to give a natural color independent of the lighting used.

 

Attenuation

A signal loss or decrease.

 

Back Focus

The distance between the image plane and the rear most portion of the lens.

 

Back Light Compensation

BLC selectively amplifies parts of the image to compensate for large contrast differences when part of the image is very brightly lit, e.g. person in a sunlit doorway.

 

Balun (Balance Unbalanced)

A device that converts a balanced video signal (e.g. as used on a twisted pair) line to an unbalanced signal (e.g. as used on coax). In a balanced line, such as twisted pair, both wires are electrically equal. In an unbalanced line such as coax, one line has different electrical properties than the other.

 

Bilinx

A communications format that allows remote control, configuration and updates to be performed over the video cable (Coax or Passive UTP).

 

Bilinx

Pan/Tilt/Zoom protocol for Bosch products.

 

Black Diamond Infrared Illumination

A groundbreaking technology that produces High-Fidelity infrared illumination for critical CCTV applications. Surpassing the capabilities of conventional infrared, Black Diamond Even Illumination lights the foreground and background of an entire scene, eliminating hot spots and underexposure for an outstanding picture. Superior image quality produced by Black Diamond also enables video analytics to immediately detect security threats.

 

Cable Category

Application and bandwidth rating system for UTP cabling. Categories 1 through 6 are based on EIA/TIA-568-B standards. Category is typically abbreviated CAT. UTP Category 5, 5e, and 6 are used for Ethernet data cabling applications. Ethernet wiring distances are limited to a maximum of 100m (328ft.) when using UTP wiring.

 

Cable Compensation

Prevents image quality degradation caused by signal losses from long cable lengths.

 

“C” and “CS” Mount

Standard CCTV lens mount. “CS” mounts normally used and have a flange to sensor distance of 12.5mm. Older “C” mount lenses, normally for larger format sensors, can still be found with a flange distance of 17.5 mm. Camera back focus adjustment needs to be able to handle either type.

 

CCD (Charge Coupled Device)

A flat, thin, light-sensitive opto-electronic wafer that forms the imaging device of most modern cameras

 

CCD Format

Indicates the size of the camera sensor used. In general, the larger the sensor, the more sensitive the camera and the better the image quality. The format is quoted in inches, e.g. 1/4" or 1/3".

 

Charged Coupled Device (CCD)

The most common type of solid state image sensor used in CCTV cameras. The sensor converts light energy to electrical signals.

 

CNG (Conical No-Grip)

Refers to Hi-Impact Dome Cameras with a no-grip, anchor-free design. The EX49 model promotes safety at prisons and hospitals where design must consider suicide prevention. It is impossible for objects, people or animals to hang, grip or perch.

 

Coaxial Cable

The type of cable generally used for TV signals where one conductor is arranged around the other to provided a shield, and reduce signal loss.

 

Color Temperature

A measure of the relative color of illumination. Most generally used to specify the automatic correction range of a color camera.

 

Composite Video

A video signal that combines the picture signal, synchronizing pulses and vertical and horizontal blanking.

 

Constant Light Technology

Uses an onboard microprocessor to automatically compensate for LED degradation and deliver a consistent level of lighting performance throughout the life of the illuminator.

 

Covert

Concealed, done secretly. When emitted beyond 940 nm, infrared illumination is invisible to the human eye and is considered covert. At 850 nm, infrared illumination emits a slight red glow, making it “semi-covert”. When infrared levels are at 940 nm or 850 nm, camera sensitivity must be sufficient to produce adequate S/N Ratio picture quality.

 

Crosstalk

An unwanted signal from different cable or channel that interferes with the video signal.

 

Day/Night (IR sensitive)

Color cameras have a built in infrared filter to improve color reproduction. In low light situations in a Day/Night camera the IR-cut filter in front of the color sensor is removed restoring the IR sensitivity of the camera.

 

DC Iris Lens

See Auto Iris Lens.

 

Default Shutter

This feature allows the shutter speed to be set to a fast speed to eliminate motion blur and providing detailed and clear image of fast-moving objects while there is sufficient light. When light levels fall and other adjustments have been exhausted, the shutter speed reverts to the standard setting to maintain sensitivity.

 

Degradation

A natural occurrence with all LED illuminators, which is accelerated when illuminators are operated at full power or in higher ambient temperatures.

 

Depth of Field

The distance from the nearest to furthest point which appears in focus. The smaller the aperture used the greater the depth of field.

 

Digital Image Stabilization

See Image Stabilization.

 

Dynamic Noise Reduction (DNR)

Digital Video processing that measures the noise in the picture and automatically reduces it appropriately.

 

Electronic Iris

EI automatically adjusts the camera’s shutter speed to account for lighting changes. In some cases eliminating the need for an auto iris lens. Sometimes referred to as AES.

 

Ethernet

The most commonly used local area network (LAN) access method. Ethernet complies with the IEEE 802.3 standard. The Ethernet standard supports 10Mbps, 100Mbps and 1000Mbps (Gigabit) data transmission rates.

 

EnviroDome

AutoDome with environmental protection that allows it to be used outdoors in almost any climate.

 

Even-Illumination

Cosec2 design helps prevent foreground overexposure and eliminates hot spots.

 

Fast Address

A system for setting the address of the AutoDome remotely from the control system.

 

Fiber Optic Transmission

Refers to the transmission of video and/or data via optical fibers. Optical fibers are thin glass strands that are designed for light wave transmission. Video and data are digitized and transformed into a series of light pulses. The use of fiber optics for video and data transmission offers several advantages over sending electrical signals across copper wires. First, light pulses are not affected by random radiation in the environment, and thus their error rate is far lower. Fiber optics span far greater distances without need for repeaters or signal regenerators, and are far more secure as they are more difficult to tap and taps in the line can be detected. Optical fiber also provides enormous bandwidth with a single fiber capable of transmitting trillions of bits per second. There are two primary types of optical fiber; singlemode and multimode. Singlemode fiber is used when large distances must be spanned, typically greater than 2Km/1.2 miles (see Singlemode). Multimode is typically used to span smaller distances such as the inside of buildings or on small campuses (see Multimode).

 

Field of View

The measure of the visible area within the camera’s field of view. The larger the focal length, the smaller the field of view. The smaller the focal length, the wider the field of view.

 

Focal Length

The distance from the optical center of the lens to the image of an object located at an infinite distance from the lens. Long focal lengths give a small field of view (e.g. telephoto effect), while short focal lengths give a wide angle view.

 

F-Number

The standard measure of the Lens aperture, the iris diameter divided by the focal length of the lens. The lower the maximum aperture, the more light that passes through the lens, also known as a faster lens.

 

Footcandle

Footcandle

 

F-Stop

See F-Number.

 

Guard Tour

Allows recorded tours with a combined duration of 15 minutes. Recorded tours consist of control commands and can be played back as needed. All camera position information is stored for maximum flexibility (including pan, tilt, zoom, etc.).

 

Hybrid Streaming

The ability to simultaneously stream IP video across a local or wide area network, and CVBS video via coaxial or fiber optic cabling.

 

IDN (Integrated Day/Night)

Designed specifically for the relentless 24/7 digital world, the IDN camera creates, captures and controls light to ensure a high-signal / low-noise picture under day and night conditions. All IDN products include a housing, camera, lens, LEDs and control circuits.

 

Image Stabilization

An algorithm that virtually eliminates camera shake in both the vertical and horizontal axes, resulting in exceptional image clarity.

 

Infrared Illumination

Electromagnetic radiation (light) with a longer wavelength than is visible to the naked eye. IR illumination is prominent at dusk and dawn and in incandescent lamps. IR illuminators come in the form of lamps with the appropriate filters, LEDs, or lasers. CCD sensors are less sensitive to IR than visible light, but IR can significantly increase the total illumination level, leading to a much better image at low light levels.

 

Infrared Imagers

An elite suite of precision engineered cameras designed and calibrated to deliver high-performance 24/7 surveillance. Incorporating performance optics and award-winning Black Diamond night vision technology, these cameras provide the most advanced level of night-time imaging available today. The Infrared Imager range includes a megapixel model and is available in Bosch IP-enabled versions.

 

IP 66

The IP code (Ingress Protection) indicates the degree of protection provided by enclosures for electrical equipment. The first number indicates protection of internal equipment against the ingress of solid foreign objects. The second number indicates protection of internal equipment against harmful ingress of water. Higher digits refer to higher levels of protection. See also NEMA rating.

 

IP Address

The address of a device attached to an IP network. Each device on an IP network must use a unique address. Every IP data packet contains a source address (sender) and a destination address (recipient). Each IP address consists of 32-bits that are arranged into four 8-bit “octets” (x.x.x.x). IP addresses range from 0.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255.

 

IP-rating

A two-digit number is used to provide an IP Rating to a piece of electronic equipment or to an enclosure for electronic equipment. The first digit represents protection against ingress of solid objects(dust). The second digit represents protection against ingress of liquids.

 

IPS

An acronym for Images Per Second. This is a measurement of the rate that pictures are displayed to create a video stream.

 

IRE (Institute of Radio Engineers)

A measurement of video amplitude that divides the area from the bottom of sync to peak white level into 140 equal units. 140 IRE equals 1V peak to peak. The range of active video is 100 IRE.

 

IVA (Intelligent Video Analytics)

Video-based intelligent security that uses video images to define unusual activity and trigger alerts in response.

 

Joule

One joule is defined as the amount of energy exerted when a force of one Newton is applied over a displacement of one meter.

 

LED (Light Emitting Diode)

A solid-state, long-life, durable electronic component that produces light when stimulated by electricity. It is often used in infrared night-time applications that require long-life, low-maintenance products.

 

Lens wizard

To set the (back) focus correctly the lens iris should be fully open to give a narrow depth of field. The lens wizard drives the A/I lens fully open while maintaining correct video level using the shutter.

 

Level Control

The adjustment of the video level to give the desired brightness level. This can be electronic or by means of the iris control.

 

Line Lock

Synchronizes AC powered cameras to the line voltage frequency.

 

Lux

The International (SI) unit of measurement of the intensity of light. It is equal to the illumination of a surface one meter away from a single candle.

 

Manual Iris Lens

A lens where the iris is manually adjusted to open or close the aperture.

 

Megapixel

One million pixels. See pixel.

 

Monochrome

A black and white signal or picture.

 

MPEG

MJPEG Motion JPEG (M-JPEG) is a video codec where each video field is separately compressed into a JPEG image.

 

Modal Dispersion (sometimes called Intermodal Dispersion)

A broadening of a waveform over long distances. Modal dispersion occurs in multimode fibers, because light is bounced down different reflective paths (e.g. modes) in the fiber. As the distance increases, the path (mode) begins to spread and the arrival time for the different light rays begins to vary. A large variance (dispersion) increases the chance that the optical receiver may interpret the incoming signals incorrectly. Modal dispersion is a major problem with multimode fibers.

 

Mode switching

Possibility to program three different parameter sets in a camera. Switching from one mode to another can be manually or automatically.

 

MPEG-4

A digital video encoding and compression standard that uses interframe encoding to significantly reduce the size of the video stream being transmitted. With interframe coding, a video sequence is made up of keyframes that contain the entire image. In between the keyframes are delta frames, which are encoded with only the incremental differences. This often provides substantial compression because in many motion sequences, only a small percentage of the pixels are actually different from one frame to another.

 

Multimode Fiber

An optical fiber with a larger core (typically 50 or 62.5 microns) than singlemode fiber. The core can be made of plastic or glass fibers and it is the most commonly used fiber for short distances such as LANs. The name multimode comes from the fact that light rays travel down multiple reflective paths (modes) within the fiber. This allows light to enter the core at different angles, making it easier to connect to broader light sources such as LEDs (light emitting diodes). Fiber optic interfaces and multimode fiber-based transmission systems are less expensive than those based on singlemode fiber. However, the use of multiple reflective paths (modes) increases modal dispersion (see Modal Dispersion) and shortens the distances that this type of fiber optic transmission system can span.

 

Multi-Protocol

A protocol is a convention or standard that controls or enables the connection, communication, and data transfer between two devices. In PTZ cameras such as the AutoDome, protocol refers to the standard used to control the pan, tilt, and zoom (PTZ) operation of the camera. Since each dome camera manufacturer’s PTZ protocols are unique, multi-protocol support is needed to support third party dome systems. AutoDome cameras support the Pelco “D” and “P” protocols and well as Bosch’s own Bi-phase protocol (See Bi-phase).

 

Nanometer (nm)

A unit of measure used to define the wavelengths of light including that of invisible light at the 715+ nm wavelength spectrum where the near-infrared range is located.

 

NEMA (National Electrical Manufacturers Association)

Rating Specification standards in reference to the operating environment for a variety of electrical devices.

 

Night Sense

NightSense is a method of boosting the sensitivity of high-resolution Dinion color cameras by 9dB (a factor of 3!) by combining the signals of the color image in a single monochrome picture.

 

NPT (National Pipe Thread)

A U.S. standard for tapered threads. NPT sizes measure the nominal inside diameter of the pipe. NPT threads form a seal as the threads compress against each other.

 

NTSC

An acronym for National Television Standards Committee. The color video and broadcasting standard used mainly in North and Central America, and Japan. The screen resolution is 525 lines, and the refresh rate is 60 Hz.

 

PAL

An acronym for Phase Alternating Line. The color video and broadcasting standard used mainly in Europe and Asia. The screen resolution is 625 lines, and the refresh rate is 50 Hz.

 

Pan

Camera movement in the horizontal direction.

 

Photocell

An opto-electronic device used to switch on infrared lighting at preset levels, and to switch from color to monochrome camera operation.

 

Pixel

The microscopic photosensitive elements of a CCD image sensor.

 

Power-on-Board

A design that includes a regulated low power input circuit that allows the illuminator to be powered via 12VDC/24VAC, eliminating the need for a dedicated power supply.

 

Power over Ethernet (PoE)

A means for delivering power to a remote device using the same cable lines used to deliver Ethernet over the Ethernet Category 5 or higher data cabling.

 

Pre-Position

A pre-selected and stored combination of pan, tilt and zoom positions that allow a set view to be recalled. Also known as Preset Shot.

 

Preset Tour

A sequence of preset shots combined to provide a pre-programmed tour of the area covered by an AutoDome camera.

 

Pressurized Dry Nitrogen Housing

A housing for outdoor applications that protects against smog, humidity, dirt and dust.

 

Privacy Masking

The ability to mask out a specific area to prevent it being viewed.

 

Reflectance

The ratio of light returned from a surface expressed as a percentage. Some items are highly reflective to IR light (appear brighter) – trees, grass, snow and natural fibers. Some items absorb IR light (appear darker) such as manmade fibers (e.g. nylon).

 

Region of Interest

The defining of a specific area within a field of view to be used by the motion detection algorithm to only look for motion within this region.

 

Remote set-up

Configuring the camera from a distance e.g. via the coax cable.

 

Resolution

The measure of the fine detail that can be seen in an image. For analog systems this is typically measured in Television Lines or TVL. The higher the TVL rating, the higher the resolution.

 

RS232/485

A communication interface for third party control and firmware upgrades to the AutoDome products.

 

Saturation

The amplitude of the chrominance signal affecting the vividness of a color.

 

Sector Blanking

The ability to blank out video in any of the 16 pan sectors.

 

Sensitivity

A measure of the amount of light required to provide a standard video signal. Sensitivity values are stated in lux or foot-candles.

 

SensUp

Increases camera sensitivity by increasing the integration time on the CCD. This is accomplished by integrating the signal from a number of consecutive video frames to reduce signal noise.

 

Signal to Noise Ratio

Measurement of the noise level in a signal expressed in dB (decibels). Noise increases as light levels decrease. A low S/N Ratio caused by low light can cause video analytics and IP compression to fail. Dark scenes with low S/N Ratios can be corrected by using better CCD cameras and invisible infrared lighting.

 

Singlemode Fiber

An optical fiber with a silica (e.g. glass) core with a diameter of less than 10 microns. Used for high-speed transmission over long distances, it provides greater bandwidth than multimode, but its smaller core makes it more difficult to couple the light source. Singlemode fiber optic transmission systems use more expensive laser-based light sources.

 

Spot Filter

A graduated filter in a lens used in a lens to increase the f-stop range of the lens.

 

Spot Focus

Activates Auto Focus for three seconds after camera movement.

 

Subnet Mask

A method of hiding the network address portion of an IP address. It does so by assigning a 1 to every digit in the network address. This prevents the network address portion of the IP address from being changed when assigning IP addresses to machines or devices on the local network.

 

Subnetting

Subnetting is a method that allows one large network to be broken down into several smaller ones. Depending on the network class (A, B, or C), some number of IP address bits are reserved for the network address (subnet) and some for the host address. For example, Class A addresses use 8 bits for the subnet address and 24 bits for the host portion of the address. Class A subnet masks are denoted 255.0.0.0. Class B addresses (16 bits for both the subnet and host address) use a 255.255.0.0 subnet mask. Class C addresses (8 bits for the subnet and 24 bits for the host address) use a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.

 

Synchronization

Electronic pulses that are inserted into the video signal in order to assemble the picture correctly.

 

TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol)

A communications protocol suite that provides two data transport methods. TCP is a connection-based protocol that ensures that data arrives intact and complete. UDP is a connectionless, best effort protocol that simply sends out packets. UDP is typically used for streaming media, while TCP is used when error-free delivery is required.

 

Tilt

Camera movement in the vertical direction.

 

Tri-streaming

A Bosch encoding technology that generates two separate MPEG-4 video streams and one MJPEG stream simultaneously. This advanced streaming capability enables the user to tune live viewing and recording requirements independently to meet specific site and enterprise requirements.

 

UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair)

A variant of twisted pair cabling UTP cable is not surrounded by any shielding. The wires in a twisted pair cable are twisted around each other to minimize interference from the other twisted pairs in the cable. UTP is the primary wire type for telephone usage and the most commonly used type of networking cable.

 

Vari focal Lens

A lens where the focal length to be used can be set manually.

 

Video Iris Lens

See auto-iris lens.

 

Virtual Masking

A unique Bosch technology that allows for the creation of “invisible” motion masking areas. These invisible masks are similar to privacy zones, but only the AutoDome’s AutoTrack II and Video Motion Detection algorithms can see them. This allows the AutoDome to ignore areas of unwanted motion.

 

VMD (Video Motion Detection)

An algorithm for motion detection in which the camera compares the current image with a reference image and counts the number of pixels (see Pixel) that have changed between the two images. An alarm is generated when the number of pixel changes exceeds a user-configured threshold.

 

XF-Dynamic

A highly accurate 15-bit digital signal processing technology from Bosch that extends the dynamic range of DinionXF cameras to optimally capture the detail in both the high and low light areas of the scene simultaneously, maximizing the information visible in the picture.

 

Zoom

Changing the effective focal length to allow different fields of view to fill the picture area. Zoom can be optical, where the lens is adjusted, or digital, where a portion of the view selected is magnified electronically.